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At present, colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. Colorectal cancer is more common in middle-aged and older people, and the main cause of death is often colorectal cancer cell metastasis.
Astaxanthin can be used as a novel inhibitor of cell metastasis in colorectal cancer, according to researchers at one University in South Korea.Astaxanthin (AXT) is a carotenoid approved by the FDA and the European commission as a color additive in food dyes. It is found in shrimp, crabs, fish and plants. It has a wide range of anti - cancer, anti - inflammatory and aging biological effects.
Astaxanthin negatively regulates the expression of the cancer-causing transcription factor MYC, the researchers found. MYC is an oncogenic transcription factor that inhibits the expression of mir-29a-3p and mir-200a genes in the mir-29 and mir-200 families, which are inhibitors of MMP2 and ZEB1, respectively. Expression of MMP2 and ZEB1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), which induces metastasis of cancer cells. Therefore, the reduction of MYC can restore the expression of mir-29a-3p and mir-200a, and thus inhibit the metastasis of MMP2 and ZEB1 related colorectal cancer.
In further animal studies, astaxanthin was found to be effective in inhibiting the metastatic activity of colon cancer cells in a mouse model in vivo.
Unfortunately, although crayfish are rich in astaxanthin, astaxanthin is concentrated in the shell of the lobster, and there is a small amount of astaxanthin in the meat. In addition to crayfish, all kinds of Marine and freshwater shrimp have higher astaxanthin content. It is hoped that astaxanthin from crayfish shells can be better used to develop effective drugs to inhibit colorectal cancer metastasis.
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