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Sun Yat-Sen University Demonstration: Interleukin IL-25 can Speed up Fat Burning

With economic development and rising living standards, obesity has become a major public health problem around the world. According to the World Health Organization(WHO), nearly 2 bilion people worldwide are verweight or obese. From 1975 to 2016, the global obesity rate nearly tripled, with 2.8 milion deaths each year caused by being ovrweight or obese.
Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat in the body caused by the imbalance of energy metabolism of the body. Fat is mainly divided into two types: white fat and brown fat. White fat is responsible for energy storage, and brown fat is responsible for heat production and energy consumption.
In recent years, another group of beige adipocytes has been found. The beige comes from a large number of mitochondria within cells. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells, which are also called celluar power plants. But it has not yet been able to translate this ability into an effective treatment.
On August 5. 2021, a team from The Scholl of Medical at Sun Yat-sen University published a paper in the journal PLOS Biology which title is ‘ IL-25--included shifts in macrophage polarization promote development of beige fat and improve metabolic homeostasis in mice.
The study showed that activating the interleukin IL-25 promotes the production of beige fat in white adipose tissue, thus accelerating fat burning. This finding could lead to new ways t reduce obesity and treat metabolic disorders.
Mitochondria release energy by consuming high-energy molecules such as fats and sugars with oxygen through aerobic respiration. Usually this energy is stored in the form of ATP, the energy currency used by cells for almost all their activities. But in beige fat, mitochondria accumulate a protein called uncoupling protein-1(UCP1),which limits ATP production and instead prodeces more heat.
People has brown fat from birth. Brown adipose tissue, cincentrated in the shoulder area, helps to generate heat to keep warm in cold environments, but brown fat trendd to decrease with age, which is why older people are more afraid of the cold. However, beige fat is more widely distributed and can be produced throughout the life cycle in response to cold and neuronal or hormonal stimulation.
Previous syudies have shown that cytokines play a role in the regulation of beige fat, and this study further found that increased interleukin IL-25 expression mimics cold and hormone receptor stimulation, thereby increasing the production of beige fat in mice.
Specifically, interieukin IL-25 increased in adipose tissue after stimulation by cold or β3-adrenergic agonists through its homologous receptor IL-17RB.
IL-25 includes the formation of beige fat in white adipocytes by releading IL-4 and IL-13 and promoting the replacement activation of macrophages that regulate inneration and up-regulate tyrosine hydroxylase to produce more catecholamines, including norepinephrine.
Blocking IL-4Ra or consuming macrophages in vivo significantly inhibited the formation of beige fat in white adipose tissue. When IL-25 expression was increased, mice fed a high-fat diet were protected from the effects of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
These studies suggest that activation of IL-25 signaling in white adipose tissue promotes the production of beige fat in white adipose tissue, with therapeutic potetial for the control of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
Thesis link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001348
Artical source:《Biological world》
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